Page 6 - 2013MagFINAL for web 7-14-14

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SOURCES:
Bryan, John, Silviculturist, Mark Twain National Forest. U.S. Forest Service (with great thanks)
U.S. Forest Service, Mark Twain National Forest. History & Culture:
http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/mtnf/learning/history-culture
The Greatest Good: A Forest Service Centennial Film.
Dir. Steven Dunsky. 2006. U.S. Forest Service.
Nelson, Paul W.
The Terrestrial Natural Communities of Missouri.
Missouri, 2010. The Missouri Natural Areas Committee.
USFS 100 years photo collection:
http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/USFSPhotoHist.pdf
National Archives photo collection:
http://www.archives.gov/research/search/
Schultheis, Bob.
Karst Topography: Springs, Caves and Sinkholes.
Powerpoint presentation for Missouri Master Naturalist Training. March 29, 2010.
Mark Twain National Forest, Eastern Divison.
Missouri Pine-Oak Woodlands Restoration Project: Proposal for Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program.
February 27, 2011.
U.S. Forest Service. Mark Twain National Forest. The Naming of the Mark Twain National Forest:
http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/mtnf/learning/historyculture/?cid=stelprdb5199118
Natural
A Brief
KEY FACTS ABOUT THE
MARK TWAIN NATIONAL FOREST:
ON THE FOREST
TREES & LOTS OF TIME
Southeastern Missouri lies in the
Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Twelve
thousand years ago it was covered
by dense boreal forest of spruce
and fir. Humans brought fire to clear
the land for hunting and later, crops.
Woodland trees such as shortleaf
pine and oak moved in along with
vast expanses of grassland.
European settlement led to wide-
spread deforestation. The Ozarks
supplied vast amounts of wood to a
Q:
What human activities have had the most
dramatic effect on the Ozarks landscape?
Fire used by ancient
hunter-gatherers to create
woodlands with grasses and
the 1870s logging boom which
decimated the shortleaf pine.
A:
KEY OZARK ERAS & RESIDENTS
• Located in the southeastern and
central portions of Missouri
• The only National Forest in MO
• Approximately 1.5 million acres total
• Eleven separate areas in 29 counties
Millman Planing Mill and Sheridan Handle Company,
near Salem MO, 1941
Measuring a shortleaf pine,
Clark National Forest, 1958
Q:
4
|
The 2013 Ozark Trail
Connector
growing nation for railroad
ties and building materi-
als. Today fragile old oaks
dominate the landscape,
surrounded by deep leaf
litter from a century of fire
suppression. A 10-year
plan in the eastern Mark
Twain National Forest calls
for removing aged trees,
planting shortleaf pine and
restoring bluestem grasses,
with prescribed burns to
re-establish a diverse fire-
managed ecosystem.
12,000 YEARS AGO: THE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH
• Trees: spruce, fir
• Animals: mastodon, saber-toothed tiger, deer, horse
• People: Native American hunters
1,000 YEARS AGO: HUNTER-GATHERERS
• Trees: oak, hickory, shortleaf pine
• Animals: bison, elk, deer, bear, mountain lion, gray wolf
• People: Native American hunter-gatherers
200 YEARS AGO: EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT BEGINS
• Trees: some oak, hickory, shortleaf pine
• Animals: deer, bear, bison, mountain lion
• People: European farmers, miners
150 YEARS AGO: DEFORESTATION
• Trees: oak, hickory, pine depleted
• Animals: deer, coyote, bobcat, fox
• People: European farmers, miners, loggers
TODAY: SECOND GROWTH
• Trees: oak, hickory, dogwood, few pine
• Animals: deer, bear, coyote, bobcat, fox
• People: farmers, loggers, miners